Which Countries Signed The Kyoto Agreement

As Milton Friedman says, economic and political freedom can be achieved through capitalism; however, it is never guaranteed that we will have the equality of wealth of those in the “food chain” of this capitalist world. All these changes come to what citizens` leaders choose to impose by improving the lifestyle. In the case of the Kyoto Protocol, provisions will be adopted to reduce the production of pollutants in the environment. In addition, attempts are being made to jeopardize the freedoms of both private citizens and public citizens. On the one hand, it imposes stricter rules on companies and reduces their profits, as they must comply with such rules, often more expensive, alternatives to production. On the other hand, it aims to reduce emissions due to the rapid transformation of the environment, the so-called climate change. The United States signed the protocol on November 12, 1998,[98] under President Clinton. However, in order to become binding on the United States, the treaty had to be ratified by the Senate, which had already adopted the non-binding Byrd Hagel resolution in 1997, in which it expressed the rejection of an international agreement that did not require developing countries to reduce their emissions and “would seriously harm the U.S. economy.” The resolution was adopted by 95-0. [99] Although the Clinton administration signed the treaty,[100] it was never submitted to the Senate for ratification. Greenhouse gas emissions have increased rapidly in several major developing countries and in fast-growing economies (China, India, Thailand, Indonesia, Egypt and Iran) (PBL, 2009).

[116] As a result, emissions in China increased sharply during the 1990-2005 period, often by more than 10% per year. Per capita emissions in non-Schedule I countries remain, for the most part, well below those in industrialized countries. Non-Schedule I countries do not have quantitative commitments to reduce emissions, but they are committed to mitigating measures. China, for example, has a national policy program to reduce emissions growth, which included the closure of older, less efficient coal-fired power plants. The protocol has a monitoring, verification and verification system in place, as well as a compliance system, to ensure transparency and hold the parties to account. Emissions from all countries had to be monitored and operations had to be accurately recorded by recording systems. Countries that have ratified the Kyoto Protocol have been allocated to maximum levels of CO2 emissions during certain periods and have participated in the exchange of emission credits. If a country issues more than its assigned limit, it would get a lower emission limit in the next period.