In previous climate negotiations, countries agreed to outline, by 1 October 2015, the measures they intended to take as part of a comprehensive agreement. These commitments are referred to as planned national contributions or NDCs.  Together, INDCs would reduce global warming from 4 to 5 degrees Celsius (by 2100) to 2.7 degrees Celsius and reduce per capita emissions by 9% by 2030, while giving hope to conference organizers of further future reductions that would achieve a target of 2oC.  Some American politicians, especially Al Gore, have stated that “no agreement is perfect and that this agreement must be strengthened over time , but groups from all sectors of society will now begin to reduce dangerous carbon pollution as part of this agreement.  China, the world`s largest emitter, is facing ongoing protests in Hong Kong. And the United States, the world`s second-largest emitter of greenhouse gases, fully adheres to the Paris agreement. It will also enable the contracting parties to gradually strengthen their contributions to the fight against climate change in order to achieve the long-term objectives of the agreement. However, the part of the Paris Agreement, known as Article 6, has proved particularly difficult. It takes a little more than a page from the text of the Paris agreement, but it has a huge and complex impact on the agreement and risks collapsing completely. The Negotiations around Article 6 led to the last round of climate talks at COP24 in Poland in overtime, and they have still not been resolved. It is therefore a high priority for The Spanish negotiators to do everything right.
According to the Paris Summit Organizing Committee, the aim of the 2015 conference was to reach a binding and universal climate agreement for the first time in more than 20 years of UN negotiations.  Pope Francis published an encyclical entitled Laudato si`, which was to influence the conference in part. The encyclical calls for action against climate change: “Humanity is called upon to recognize the need to change the way of life, production and consumption in order to combat this warming or, at the very least, against the human causes that produce or aggravate it.”  The International Trade Union Confederation called for the “zero carbon, zero poverty” target to be met, and its secretary general, Sharan Burrow, reiterated that there were “no jobs on a dead planet”. The November 2020 COP in Glasgow will last five years since the signing of the Paris Agreement, and this is the meeting at which countries will present their next round of commitments to mitigate their contributions to climate change.